Careful delineation of the timing and function of the coping strategy is valuable, because there may be some strategies that are effective in the short run, but counterproductive if used persistently over time. For a general review, we included the terms: Racism itself and the environmental conditions associated with racism e.
Figure 1 provides a graphical illustration of these different possible pathways.
Social exclusion includes a variety of different interactions in which individuals are excluded from social interactions, rejected, or ignored because of their ethnicity or race.
Next, we examine available models for describing and conceptualizing strategies for coping with racism. Members of most ethnic or racial minority groups report exposure over the course of their lifetime, and recent research indicates that episodes of ethnicity-related maltreatment occur on a weekly basis for some groups Brondolo et al.
It is important to note that we do not intend this review to communicate the idea that the burden of coping with racism should be placed on the shoulders of targeted individuals alone. From the perspective of the targeted individual, racism is a complex stressor, requiring a range of different coping resources to manage both practical and emotional aspect of the stressor.
Consequently, one of the most serious challenges facing minority group members is the need to develop a broad range of racism-related coping responses to permit them to respond to different types of situations and to adjust the response depending on factors that might influence the effectiveness of any particular coping strategy.
A variety of coping strategies may be needed at each point. However, the bulk of empirical research on coping with racism focuses on strategies for coping with interpersonal racism. For the section on anger, we included the terms: Other concerns are more specific to the difficulties of developing models for coping with racism.
Although much of the research on coping with racism has focused on African American samples, we have included the available data on other groups, including individuals of Asian and Latino a descent as well. However, as Mellor points out, many of the strategies included in models of coping responses can only be loosely organized according to available rubrics for categorizing coping strategies.
Our evaluation of coping effectiveness focuses on stress-buffering effects. Racism, in particular, self-reported ethnic or racial discrimination is a highly prevalent phenomenon.
Nonetheless, careful examination of the effectiveness of individual-level coping strategies is needed to guide future interventions at both the individual and other levels.
Mellor suggests an alternate framework for organizing racism-related coping that focuses on the function of the coping strategies versus the content of their focus. The effectiveness A review of literature in discussion of issues in identity the coping response may vary depending on the context in which the maltreatment occurs.
Measures which include items assessing both immediate and longer term responses and inquire about the circumstances of exposure to maltreatment are needed. For each venue or domain in which racist events might occur i.
This functional approach may be an important step toward developing more effective models of coping with racism, particularly if the purpose is closely linked to the various specific challenges that face targets of discrimination.
It is unclear if the item refers to expressing anger at the perpetrator of the racist acts possibly a problem-focused or approach coping strategy or discharging anger later when thinking about specific incidents possibly an emotion-focused coping strategy.
Racism has also been linked to several other health conditions Paradiesand to perceived health, which is itself a predictor of all-cause mortality Borrell et al. We examine empirical support for the role of these coping strategies in buffering the impact of racism on specific health-related outcomes, including mental health i.
Additionally, it can also be difficult to determine if the coping strategies included in the models are intended to address racism specifically or the various consequences of discrimination, such as unemployment, denial of a job promotion, or poverty.
There are very limited population-based data on the strategies used to manage discrimination in general. Third, we discuss three major forms of coping: Third, we discuss three major approaches to coping: Careful examination of the effectiveness of individual-level coping strategies can guide future interventions on both the individual and community levels.
Eliminating racism and the effects of racism on health will require interventions at all levels: For the specific review on racial and ethnic identity, we included the terms: Targets must cope with the substance of racism, such as interpersonal conflict, blocked opportunities, and social exclusion.
For example, it is unclear how to classify spirituality and Africultural coping, which appear to represent multifaceted strategies with some aspects involving problem-focused coping and others involving emotion-focused coping Constantine et al.
In a population-based sample of over 4, Black and White men and women, participants were asked about the ways they handled episodes of racial discrimination Krieger and Sidney Each of these measures is subject to the limitations of traditional self-reported trait coping indices Lazarus The relative benefit associated with performing the coping response should be smaller or not at all in evidence among those who are not exposed to the stressor.Transgender Research Literature Review Kara Devaney Michigan State University.
transgender population focus on medical aspects of gender identity and not the psychosocial identity of the individual. The medical research that exists is pathological in nature, that is, it identifies there is a current discussion about the inclusion of.
LITERATURE? AN OVERVIEW When the English preacher and writer Sidney Smith asked in“In the Search for Identity 4 WHAT IS AMERICAN LITERATURE? Amer. Passages # stud intro 8/30/05 PM Page 4. This two-part question should trigger discussion about issues such as, Who belongs to America?
When and how. Ethical Issues in Conducting Community-Based Participatory Research: A Narrative Review of the Literature Abstract Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is a methodology increasingly used within the social. Coping With Racism: A Selective Review of the Literature and a Theoretical and Methodological Critique.
Elizabeth Brondolo, Ph.D., Nisha Brady, We begin with a discussion of the ways in which racism acts as a stressor and requires the mobilization of coping resources. Next, we examine available models for describing and.
Just like most academic papers, literature reviews also must contain at least three basic elements: an introduction or background information section; the body of the review containing the discussion of sources; and, finally, a conclusion and/or recommendations section to end the paper.
IDENTITY THEFT LITERATURE REVIEW Prepared for presentation and discussion at the National Institute of Justice Focus Group Meeting to develop a research agenda to.Download